1. World Health Organization, Global status report on road safety (Geneva: WHO, 2013).
2. A modeling study of Portland, Oregon (USA) estimated that by 2040, investments in bike facilities (costing from $138 to $605 million) will result in healthcare-cost savings of $388 million to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 million to $218 million, and savings in the value of statistical lives of $7 million to $12 billion. Thomas Gotschi, “Costs & Benefits of Bicycling Investments in Portland, Oregon”. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 8 (2011), 49–58.
3. In America the average cost of congestion to a car-owning household is estimated to be $1,700 a year; in France it is $2,500. But traffic is so bad in Los Angeles that each resident loses around $6,000 a year twiddling their thumbs in traffic—at a total cost of $23 billion, the costs are estimated to exceed that of the whole of Britain. But these costs do not take account of the price of carbon-dioxide emissions. In total, over 15,000 kilotons of needless CO2 fumes were expelled last year—which would cost an additional $350m to offset at current market prices. In choked-up Los Angeles $50m alone would have to be set aside.
“The cost of traffic jams”, The Economist, accessed June 7, 2016 http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/11/economist-explains-1.
4. L. J. Blincoe et al., The economic and societal impact of motor vehicle crashes (Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2010).
5. Chung Yim Yiu, “The Impact of a Pedestrianisation Scheme on Retail Rent-an Empirical Study in Hong Kong.” Journal of Place Management and Development 4, No.3 (2011).
6. New York City Department of Transportation, Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets (New York, NY: NYC DOT, 2012).
7. Foster Josh, Lowe Ashley and Winkelman Steve. The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation (Washington, DC: Center for Clean Air Policy, 2011)
8. Foster, The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation