Active Frontage refers to the street frontages or edges that allow a visual or physical engagement between the street users and the ground floors of buildings. Frequent openings and windows with few blank walls; narrow-frontage buildings that give vertical rhythm to the street edge; facade articulation; transparency that promotes eyes on the street; and uses spilling onto the street contribute to active frontages. Making building edges “active” to the street adds interest and vitality to the street environment.
Active Mobility or healthy transportation choices, refers to any form of human-powered transportation. These may include walking, cycling, or using a non-mechanized wheelchair that increases physical activity levels, positively impacting public health. All active modes of transportation are also sustainable modes of transportation as they leave minimal carbon footprint and do not contribute to carbon emissions.
The pedestrian clear path defines the primary, dedicated, and accessible pathway on the street. It is an unobstructed, level, and smooth surface that ensures that pedestrians have a safe and adequate place to walk. Clear paths must be wide enough to allow two people in wheelchairs to pass one another, and are recommended to have a minimum width of 1.8 m.
In intersection design, Daylighting consists of prohibiting parking and loading within a certain distance of an intersection to increase visibility between motorists and pedestrians. This can also be achieved through geometric design, by physically extending the curb, or raising the pedestrian crossing. Temporary or permanent bollards are often used to daylight intersections in low-compliance contexts.
Vertical Deflection: It refers to speed control measures which involve the modification of the pavement elevation. When well designed, vertical deflection measures self-enforce slower speeds for motorists. Examples include speed humps, speed cushions, speed tables, and raised crossings.
Horizontal Deflection: Horizontal speed control measures cause motorists to slow down in response to either a visually narrower roadway or a need to navigate a curving travel lane. Examples include curb extensions, pinch-points or gateways, chicanes, and lane and roadway narrowing that might result from the introduction of medians or pedestrian refuge islands.
When a passing cyclist is struck by the sudden opening of a vehicular door in the door zone of a parked vehicle, it is referred to as Dooring.
Exposure and Risk
For the purpose of this guide, Exposure is defined as the state of being exposed to risk. It is measured as the probability of a user being involved in a crash. Risk refers to any situation involving exposure to danger, injury, or loss that may involve factors such as perception, willingness, and convenience. Mathematically, it is defined as injury rate calculated as the number of injuries or crashes over the amount of exposure, or over the population. Risk may apply to perception of risk or the tendency to take risk.
Facilities ( Cycle or Transit)
Facilities, such as cycle facilities or transit facilities, are designated spaces within the street that are specifically designed for the movement of the given mode. Dedicated facilities ensure safe and efficient movement of the mode.
Green Infrastructure is a planning and design approach to managing stormwater and other natural resources to create healthier environments. The term describes the network of green spaces and water systems that mimic those found in nature and values their ability to deliver multiple environmental, economic, and social benefits.
Infrastructure (Pedestrian, Cycle, or Transit)
Infrastructure refers to all facilities and amenities that may be used by the person using a given mode of transport. For example, in the case of pedestrians, it may refer to sidewalks, accessibility ramps,or benches, while in the case of cyclists, it may refer to cycle facilities, bike racks, parking, bike signals etc.
Interim design strategies are a set of tools and tactics that cities can use to improve their roadways and public spaces in the near term. They include low-cost, interim materials; new public amenities, and creative partnerships with local stakeholders, which together enable faster project delivery, and more flexible and responsive design.