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The surest way to improve mobility is to reduce the demand for private motor vehicle use, promote walking for short trips, cycling and local transit for medium-length trips, and regional transit for longer trips.
Citywide transit-first and active transportation-first policies empower designers to create viable alternatives to driving. Policies that accurately price parking or vehicle entry are highly effective tools in encouraging demand shift to other modes. Land use and development policies should be established in conjunction with transportation goals, as development patterns have the greatest influence on the transportation system.
São Paulo, Brazil
Increase the percentage of roadway space allocated for pedestrians and cyclists using dedicated cycle lanes and widened sidewalks. Improving walking and cycling access increases transit use.
Increase transit system capacity, speed, reliability, as well as overall service quality by prioritizing surface transit, especially on congested streets. Create dedicated street space for bus lanes and trams, high-quality bus and tram stations, and improved station access by foot and cycle.
Create active, mixed-use neighborhoods that are safe and easily accessible by walking, cycling, and transit. Limit peripheral development to areas near major transit hubs.
Designate off-peak times for delivery of goods to reduce the impact of delivery trucks on traffic congestion during the busiest times of day. Consolidate large shipments away from the city center to allow for smaller vehicles to distribute goods in downtown areas.
Develop pricing strategies, including parking pricing, tolling of major roadway facilities, and peak period congestion pricing for entering the most dense and active areas of the city. Vehicle and licensing fees can also be used.
Work with large employers, especially industrial firms and satellite office areas, to create transit, carpool, and vanpool or shuttle options for employees. Incentives could include financial returns such as pre-tax benefits, transit pass reimbursement, parking space cashouts, or ride-sharing programs.
Develop or support a robust, densely available bike share system, greatly extending the reach of fixed-route transit and reducing the use of cars and taxis for trips inside the city center.
Develop or support citywide car-sharing services, reducing the need for car ownership and parking in neighborhoods. Designated parking spaces can support these services. Shifting municipal fleets to car share vehicles can reduce the demand for parking and help incentivize car sharing.
Adapted by Global Street Design Guide published by Island Press.
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